Qualifications for Election as President
A person to be eligible for election as President should fulfil the following qualifications:
Oath or Affirmation by the President
Before entering upon his office, the President has to make and subscribe to an oath or affirmation. In his oath, the President swears:
Any other person acting as President or discharging the functions of the President also undertakes the similar oath or affirmation.
Conditions of President’s Office
The Constitution lays down the following conditions of the President’s office:
The President is entitled to a number of privileges and immunities. He enjoys personal immunity from legal liability for his official acts. During his term of office, he is immune from any criminal proceedings, even in respect of his personal acts. He cannot be arrested or imprisoned. However, after giving two months’ notice, civil proceedings can be instituted against him during his term of office in respect of his personal acts.
Term of President’s Office
The President holds office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office. However, he can resign from his office at any time by addressing the resignation letter to the Vice-President. Further, he can also be removed from the office before completion of his term by the process of impeachment.
The President can hold office beyond his term of five years until his successor assumes charge. He is also eligible for re-election to that office. He may be elected for any number of terms. However, in USA, a person cannot be elected to the office of the President more than twice.
Vacancy in the President’s Office
A vacancy in the President’s office can occur in any of the following ways:
or to discharge the functions of the President.
If the office falls vacant by resignation, removal, death or otherwise, then election to fill the vacancy should be held within six months from the date of the occurrence of such a vacancy. The newly-elected President remains in office for a full term of five years from the date he assumes charge of his office.
When a vacancy occurs in the office of the President due to his resignation, removal, death or otherwise, the Vice-President acts as the President until a new President is elected. Further, when the sitting President is unable to discharge his functions due to absence, illness or any other cause, the VicePresident discharges his functions until the President resumes his office.
In case the office of Vice-President is vacant, the Chief Justice of India (or if his office is also vacant, the seniormost judge of the Supreme Court available) acts as the President or discharges the functions of the President.
When any person, ie, Vice-President, chief justice of India, or the seniormost judge of the Supreme Court is acting as the President or discharging the functions of the President, he enjoys all the powers and immunities of the President and is entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as are determined by the Parliament.