The Speaker is elected by the assembly itself from amongst its members. Usually, the Speaker remains in office during the life of the assembly. However, he vacates his office earlier in any of the following three cases:
if he ceases to be a member of the assembly;
if he resigns by writing to the deputy speaker; and
if he is removed by a resolution passed by a majority of all the then members of the assembly. Such a resolution can be moved only after giving 14 days advance notice.
The Speaker has the following powers and duties:
He maintains order and decorum in the assembly for conducting its business and regulating its proceedings. This is his primary responsibility and he has final power in this regard.
He is the final interpreter of the provisions of (a) the Constitution of India, (b) the rules of procedure and conduct of business of assembly, and (c) the legislative precedents, within the assembly.
He adjourns the assembly or suspends the meeting in the absence of a quorum.
He does not vote in the first instance. But, he can exercise a casting vote in the case of a tie.
He can allow a ‘secret’ sitting of the House at the request of the leader of the House.
He decides whether a bill is a Money Bill or not and his decision on this question is final.
He decides the questions of disqualification of a member of the assembly, arising on the ground of defection under the provisions of the Tenth Schedule.
He appoints the chairmen of all the committees of the assembly and supervises their functioning. He himself is the chairman of the Business Advisory Committee, the Rules Committee and the General Purpose Committee.